저널 Read more :: PMC OpenAccess Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper.
강의 Read more :: MIT OpenCourseWare Cryptography and Cryptanalysis This course features a rigorous introduction to modern cryptography, with an emphasis on the fundamental cryptographic primitives of public-key encryption, digital signatures, pseudo-random number generation, and basic protocols and their computational complexity requirements.
연구과제 Read more :: HORIZON 2020 Information driven Cyber Security Management Topic Description Scope:Specific challenge: Our dependence on technology continues to grow and, at the same time, the internal complexity of organisations' ICT systems and the external threat environment continue to grow as well and evolve in dynamic and daunting ways.One approach to cyber security risk management focuses inward on understanding and addressing incidents, vulnerabilities, weaknesses and potential impact. Meanwhile, effective defence against current and future threats requires the addition of a balancing, outward focused approach, on understanding the adversary’s behaviour, capability, and intent.Those called to deal with incidents or responsible for managing cyber security programmes are often faced with an overwhelming amount of information, often raw and unstructured, to the point where making efficient use of these information flows has become a challenge in itself. Effective decision making may be therefore hampered, especially in times of crisis.SMEs face a particular challenge seeing as they often do not have the capacity to obtain relevant information or the necessary expertise to analyse it in order to address the cyber security threats they face on their own.Scope: Effective decision making, early warning systems and cyber security management requires tools and techniques that enable organisations to efficiently process the flow of information from both internal and external sources, through improved information processing, analysis and, where necessary, exchange; as well as to manage the implementation of cyber security solutions.The tools and techniques should leverage the state-of-the-art in areas such as SIEM, data analytics (including Big Data) and visualisation, threat intelligence, malware analysis and cyber security information exchange.Taking into account the large variety of IT systems and architectures in use today, the projects should strive to promote interoperability through the use of globally accepted open standards and wider uptake of any proposed solutions.Several pilots projects will be supported, for different application areas.The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU of between €2m and €5m EUR would allow this topic to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts.Proposals have to address the specific needs of the end-user, private or public organisations.With the goal of providing assistance to the private sector (including SMEs), proposals may also address the needs of those entities whose mission it is to assist others such as CSIRTs, national or sector-specific Cyber Security Centres or similar organisations.Proposals are encouraged to include public security end-users and/or private end users.Expected impact: The pilots projects will establish and validate tools and techniques that will facilitate the management of internal and external information sources related to cyber security management.Through better information management and appropriate dissemination, the actions are expected to lead to more effective vulnerability remediation, enhanced prevention and detection capabilities and faster response to incidents.Ultimately the actions should aim to reduce the impact of incidents and in particular to increase the level of awareness and preparedness of all stakeholders, public or private, large organisations or SMEs.The outcome of the proposal is expected to lead to developments up to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6 or above; please see part G of the General Annexes. (Innovation Actions may include prototyping, testing, demonstrating, piloting, large-scale product validation and market replication (see Annex D).)“Type of action: Innovation action Topic conditions and documents Please read carefully all provisions below before the preparation of your application. The budget breakdown for this call is given in the call conditions section of the work programme. 1. List of countries and applicable rules for funding: described in part A of the General Annexes of the General Work Programme. 2. Eligibility and admissibility conditions: described in part B and C of the General Annexes of the General Work Programme 3. Evaluation 3.1 Evaluation criteria and procedure, scoring and threshold: described in part H of the General Annexes of the General Work Programme 3.2 Guide to the submission and evaluation process 4. Proposal page limits and layout: Please refer to Part B of the standard proposal template. 5. Indicative timetable for evaluation and grant agreement: Information on the outcome of one-stage evaluation: maximum 5 months from the final date for submission. Signature of grant agreements: maximum 8 months from the final date for submission. 6. Provisions, proposal templates and evaluation forms for the type(s) of action(s) under this topic: Innovation Action: Specific provisions and funding rates Standard proposal template (administrative forms and structure of technical annex) Standard evaluation form Annotated Model Grant Agreement 7. Additional provisions: Horizon 2020 budget flexibility Classified information Technology readiness levels (TRL) – where a topic description refers to TRL, these definitions apply. Financial support to Third Parties – where a topic description foresees financial support to Third Parties, these provisions apply. 8. Open access must be granted to all scientific publications resulting from Horizon 2020 actions, and proposals must refer to measures envisaged. Where relevant, proposals should also provide information on how the participants will manage the research data generated and/or collected during the project, such as details on what types of data the project will generate, whether and how this data will be exploited or made accessible for verification and re-use, and how it will be curated and preserved. Additional documents Flash call info en Explanatory note on exclusive focus on civil applications en Explanatory note on potential misuse of research en Explanatory note on the control of export for dual-use items en Guidance - Guidelines for the classification of research results en Legal basis - Framework Programme H2020 en Legal basis - Specific Programme H2020 en WP H2020 - 1. Introduction en WP H2020 - 14. Secure societies - protecting freedom and security of Europe and its citizens en WP H2020 - 17. Communication and Dissemination en WP H2020 - 19. General Annexes en A guide to ICT-related activities in WP2014-15 en Get support National Contact Points (NCP) – contact your NCP for further assistance. Enterprise Europe Network – contact your EEN national contact point for advice to businesses with special focus on SMEs. The support includes guidance on the EU research funding. Ideal-IST partner search facility Research Enquiry Service – ask questions about any aspect of European research in general and the EU Research Framework Programmes in particular. IT Helpdesk – contact the Participant Portal IT helpdesk for questions such as forgotten passwords, access rights and roles, technical aspects of submission of proposals, etc. Ethics – to ensure compliance with ethical issues, further information is available on the Participant Portal and on the Science and Society Portal. European IPR Helpdesk assists you on intellectual property issues. The European Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for their recruitment CEN and CENELEC, the European Standards Organisations, advise you how to tackle standardisation in your project proposal. Contact CEN-CENELEC Research Helpdesk at firstname.lastname@example.org. Partner Search Services helps you find a partner organisation for your proposal. H2020 Online Manual your online guide on the procedures from proposal submission to managing your grant.